Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan

Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan

Begin: Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan
This assignment covers the content in Week 4 and Week 5 on measurement instruments. Week 4 content and related assignment questions are listed below. Preparatory content and related assignment questions for Week 5 content are included in the Week 5 Application area.
To prepare for this Application:
Review Chapter 2, “Conceptual Foundations of Research” (pp. 24–32) and Chapter 7, “Measurement” in the course text Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
Review Chapter 3, “Concepts” in the course text from RSCH 8100, A Primer in Theory Construction.
Consider the research plan you are developing for the Final Project.
What levels of measurement will be important for your study? Why?
How will you ensure content validity, empirical validity, and construct validity for your study? If any of these types of validity do not apply to your plan, provide a rationale.
How will you ensure reliability for the measurement in your study?
What are the strengths and limitations of the measurement instrument you have selected in terms of reliability and validity?
The assignment:

Craft a 5- to 7-page paper that includes the following:

The levels of measurement that will be important for your study and why.
How you will ensure content validity, empirical validity, and construct validity for your study. If any of these types of validity do not apply to your plan, provide a rationale.
How you will ensure reliability for the measurement in your study.
The strengths and limitations of the measurement instrument you have selected in terms of reliability and validity.
Provide at least 10 references to the literature to support your choices and rationales.
Please proceed to the SPSS Practice.
• Instructions – SPSS Practice
In Weeks 7–11, you will be responsible for analyzing data using SPSS in some of your assignments. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you complete the SPSS exercises below and participate in the Statistics & SPSS Discussion below Week 12 to gain the maximum benefit.
Practice Materials:
Review the assigned readings in the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, focusing on Lessons 16 A/B, 17 A/B, and 18 A/B.
Download the sample data files for Lessons 15 (Mac) or 16 (PC) of the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/#sam.
Practice Exercise:
Complete the activities for the assigned SPSS lessons.
Optional but strongly encouraged: Visit the Statistics & SPSS Discussion area located under the Statistics button below Week 12. Ask any questions you may have, post tips about SPSS, or answer your colleagues’ questions.
Please proceed to Week 5.

• Objectives – Week 4: Measurement, Validity, and Reliability
Introduction

When conducting research, the variables you seek to investigate must be categorized in a way to be measured correctly. A properly chosen or created measurement instrument ensures that the data you collect represent the variables in your study. This in turn will help you to validate your findings and prove their reliability. It is these steps that fortify your findings and conclusions and help other researchers trust your findings as a scholarly resource.
This week, you will consider these concepts as they pertain to your discipline by drafting the next section of your Final Project on the measurements and instruments for your research plan. You will complete and submit this section in Week 5.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this week, you should be able to:
Differentiate between levels of measurement
Compare validity of design to validity of measurement
Please proceed to the Learning Resources.
Resources Discussion Application SPSS Practice
• Access Resources
Required Resources
Course Text: Research Methods in the Social Sciences

Chapter 2, “Conceptual Foundations of Research” (pp. 24–32)

Pages 24–32 of Chapter 2 examine the concepts of theoretical systems, the four levels of theory, and how these models represent aspects of the real world.
Chapter 7, “Measurement”

Chapter 7 presents the nature of measurement in research, describes the four levels of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, and rational—and concludes with descriptions of validity and reliability. This reading will be used in this week’s Discussion and Application.
Appendix C, ” : The Summation Sign”

Appendix C describes the meaning and rules for the use of sigma, the summation sign, in statistics. This resource is useful in this week’s Discussion regarding measurement.
Course Text from RSCH 8100: A Primer in Theory Construction

Review Chapter 3, “Concepts”

Chapter 3 presents different facets of concepts in scientific research. Review of this chapter will be useful as you write your Application.
Course Text: Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data
Lesson 16 A/B, “Creating an SPSS Graph/Chart”
Lesson 17 A/B, “Enhancing SPSS Graphs/Charts”
Lesson 18 A/B, “Using the Viewer and Pivot Tables,” “Using the Viewer”

Lessons 16, 17, and 18 introduce how to create graphs and charts, and how to use the viewer and Pivot tables in SPSS. You will work off these lessons in the SPSS Practice activity.
Sample data files to accompany the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data http://www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/#sam

Lesson 16 Data File 1
Lesson 17 Data File 1
Lesson 18 Data File 1
These data files accompany this week’s SPSS Practice.
Software: SPSS
Research Toolki
Readings
Course Text: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Chapter 3, “Writing Clearly and Concisely”
Chapter 4, “The Mechanics of Style”
Chapter 6, “Crediting Sources”
Chapter 7, “Reference Examples”
Statistics and SPSS
Web Site: SPSS Student Resource Center
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/academic/students/resources.html
The student section of the SPSS Academic Resource Center is your one-stop shop for all your statistics and data-mining needs, including tutorials, reading lists, and training courses.
Web Site: SPSS Technical Support http://www.spss.ie/support/index.html
The SPSS student support site provides a knowledge base and assistance from SPSS Technical Support staff.
Web Site: Web Center for Social Research Methods http://www.socialresearchmethods.net
This Web site is for people involved in applied social research and evaluation. You’ll find lots of resources and links to other locations on the Web that deal in applied social research methods.
Web Site: Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SAS, Stata and SPSS
http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm
UCLA’s Academic Technology Services statistics table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis, and links showing how to do such tests using SAS, Stata, and SPSS.

Optional Resources
See the Suggested Bibliography for recommended books.
Please proceed to the Discussion.
Online Resources for
Salkind Technical Support | myPearsonStore

Jump to: Books by Neil J. Salkind | Books by Neil J. Salkind & Samuel Green

Books by Neil J. Salkind
Exploring Research, 6/e
Neil J. Salkind
? Companion Website
Exploring Research, 5/e
Neil J. Salkind
? Companion Website

Books by Neil J. Salkind & Samuel Green
SPSS QuickStarts, 1/e
Neil J. Salkind & Samuel Green
? Dataset Download
Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, 6/e
Samuel Green & Neil J. Salkind
? Dataset Download

Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, 5/e
Samuel Green & Neil J. Salkind
? Dataset Download

•    Objectives – Week 4: Measurement, Validity, and Reliability
Introduction

When conducting research, the variables you seek to investigate must be categorized in a way to be measured correctly. A properly chosen or created measurement instrument ensures that the data you collect represent the variables in your study. This in turn will help you to validate your findings and prove their reliability. It is these steps that fortify your findings and conclusions and help other researchers trust your findings as a scholarly resource.
This week, you will consider these concepts as they pertain to your discipline by drafting the next section of your Final Project on the measurements and instruments for your research plan. You will complete and submit this section in Week 5.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of this week, you should be able to:
Differentiate between levels of measurement
Compare validity of design to validity of measurement
Please proceed to the Learning Resources.
Resources     Discussion     Application     SPSS Practice
•    Access Resources
Required Resources
Course Text: Research Methods in the Social Sciences

Chapter 2, “Conceptual Foundations of Research” (pp. 24–32)

Pages 24–32 of Chapter 2 examine the concepts of theoretical systems, the four levels of theory, and how these models represent aspects of the real world.
Chapter 7, “Measurement”

Chapter 7 presents the nature of measurement in research, describes the four levels of measurement—nominal, ordinal, interval, and rational—and concludes with descriptions of validity and reliability. This reading will be used in this week’s Discussion and Application.
Appendix C, ” : The Summation Sign”

Appendix C describes the meaning and rules for the use of sigma, the summation sign, in statistics. This resource is useful in this week’s Discussion regarding measurement.
Course Text from RSCH 8100: A Primer in Theory Construction

Review Chapter 3, “Concepts”

Chapter 3 presents different facets of concepts in scientific research. Review of this chapter will be useful as you write your Application.
Course Text: Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data
Lesson 16 A/B, “Creating an SPSS Graph/Chart”
Lesson 17 A/B, “Enhancing SPSS Graphs/Charts”
Lesson 18 A/B, “Using the Viewer and Pivot Tables,” “Using the Viewer”

Lessons 16, 17, and 18 introduce how to create graphs and charts, and how to use the viewer and Pivot tables in SPSS. You will work off these lessons in the SPSS Practice activity.
Sample data files to accompany the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Datahttp://www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/#sam

Lesson 16 Data File 1
Lesson 17 Data File 1
Lesson 18 Data File 1
These data files accompany this week’s SPSS Practice.
Software:SPSS
Research Toolki
Readings
Course Text: Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association
Chapter 3, “Writing Clearly and Concisely”
Chapter 4, “The Mechanics of Style”
Chapter 6, “Crediting Sources”
Chapter 7, “Reference Examples”
Statistics and SPSS
Web Site: SPSS Student Resource Center
http://www-01.ibm.com/software/analytics/spss/academic/students/resources.html
The student section of the SPSS Academic Resource Center is your one-stop shop for all your statistics and data-mining needs, including tutorials, reading lists, and training courses.
Web Site: SPSS Technical Supporthttp://www.spss.ie/support/index.html
The SPSS student support site provides a knowledge base and assistance from SPSS Technical Support staff.
Web Site: Web Center for Social Research Methodshttp://www.socialresearchmethods.net
This Web site is for people involved in applied social research and evaluation. You’ll find lots of resources and links to other locations on the Web that deal in applied social research methods.
Web Site: Choosing the Correct Statistical Test in SAS, Stata and SPSS
http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/mult_pkg/whatstat/default.htm
UCLA’s Academic Technology Services statistics table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis, and links showing how to do such tests using SAS, Stata, and SPSS.

Optional Resources
See the Suggested Bibliography for recommended books.
Please proceed to the Discussion.
Online Resources for
Salkind    Technical Support|myPearsonStore
Jump to:Books by Neil J. Salkind | Books by Neil J. Salkind& Samuel GreenBooks by Neil J. Salkind
Exploring Research, 6/e
Neil J. Salkind
?    Companion Website
Exploring Research, 5/e
Neil J. Salkind
?    Companion Website
Books by Neil J. Salkind& Samuel Green
SPSS QuickStarts, 1/e
Neil J. Salkind& Samuel Green
?    Dataset Download
Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, 6/e
Samuel Green & Neil J. Salkind
?    Dataset Download
Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, 5/e
Samuel Green & Neil J. Salkind
?    Dataset Download

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Privacy PolicyWelcome! This website is for people involved in applied social research and evaluation. You’ll find lots of resources and links to other locations on the Web that deal in applied social research methods.
Some highlights of what is available: [test]
The Knowledge Base
An online hypertext textbook on applied social research methods that covers everything you want to know about defining a research question, sampling, measurement, research design and data analysis.
Selecting Statistics
An online statistical advisor! Answer the questions and it will lead you to an appropriate statistical test for your data.
The Simulation Book
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» Knowledge Base
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» Simulation Book

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CORE: Cornell Office for Research on Evaluation

What statistical analysis should I use?
The following table shows general guidelines for choosing a statistical analysis. We emphasize that these are general guidelines and should not be construed as hard and fast rules. Usually your data could be analyzed in multiple ways, each of which could yield legitimate answers. The table below covers a number of common analyses and helps you choose among them based on the number of dependent variables (sometimes referred to as outcome variables), the nature of your independent variables (sometimes referred to as predictors). You also want to consider the nature of your dependent variable, namely whether it is an interval variable, ordinal or categorical variable, and whether it is normally distributed (see What is the difference between categorical, ordinal and interval variables? for more information on this). The table then shows one or more statistical tests commonly used given these types of variables (but not necessarily the only type of test that could be used) and links showing how to do such tests using SAS, Stata and SPSS.
Number of
Dependent
Variables     Nature of
Independent
Variables    Nature of Dependent
Variable(s)
Test(s)    How to
SAS    How to
Stata    How to
SPSS
1     0 IVs
(1 population)     interval & normal     one-sample t-test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     one-sample median     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical
(2 categories)     binomial test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     Chi-square goodness-of-fit     SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 IV with 2 levels
(independent groups)    interval & normal     2 independent sample t-test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval
Wilcoxon-Mann Whitney test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     Chi- square test     SAS
Stata
SPSS            Fisher’s exact test     SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 IV with 2 or more levels (independent groups)    interval & normal     one-way ANOVA     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     Kruskal Wallis     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     Chi- square test     SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 IV with 2 levels
(dependent/matched groups)    interval & normal     paired t-test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     Wilcoxon signed ranks test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     McNemar    SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 IV with 2 or more levels
(dependent/matched groups)    interval & normal     one-way repeated measures ANOVA     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     Friedman test     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     repeated measures logistic regression    SAS
Stata
SPSS    2 or more IVs
(independent groups)    interval & normal     factorial ANOVA     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     ordered logistic regression    SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     factorial
logistic regression     SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 interval IV     interval & normal     correlation     SAS
Stata
SPSS            simple linear regression     SAS
Stata
SPSS        ordinal or interval     non-parametric correlation     SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     simple logistic regression     SAS
Stata
SPSS    1 or more interval IVs and/or
1 or more categorical IVs     interval & normal     multiple regression    SAS
Stata
SPSS            analysis of covariance    SAS
Stata
SPSS        categorical     multiple logistic regression    SAS
Stata
SPSS            discriminant analysis     SAS
Stata
SPSS2 or more     1 IV with 2 or more levels
(independent groups)    interval & normal     one-way MANOVA     SAS
Stata
SPSS2 or more     2 or more     interval & normal     multivariate multiple linear regression     SAS
Stata
SPSS2 sets of
2 or more     0     interval & normal     canonical correlation     SAS
Stata
SPSS2 or more     0     interval & normal     factor analysis     SAS
Stata
SPSSNumber of
Dependent
Variables     Nature of
Independent
Variables    Nature of Dependent
Variable(s)
Test(s)    How to
SAS    How to
Stata    How to
SPSS
This page was adapted from Choosing the Correct Statistic developed by James D. Leeper, Ph.D. We thank Professor Leeper for permission to adapt and distribute this page from our site.

•    Instructions – Discussion
Post your responses to the Discussion based on the course requirements.
After you have completed the Discussion, please proceed to the Application.

Post to Discussion

To access this week’s Discussion, click on the Post to Discussion link above.

Additionally, please paste your initial Discussion post into a Microsoft Word document, save it with the file name “WK4Disc+last name+first initial.doc”, and submit it to Turnitin via the View/Complete link below.

Discussion Turnitin – Week 4

Levels of Measurement and Concepts of Validity
Selecting a method to accurately measure variables can be a complex task. Some data can be transformed from one level of measurement to another, and other data cannot. Measurement instruments must also be validated to prove they accurately measure the variables in question. In this Discussion, you will consider the measurement of data and compare measurement validity to the concept of design validity, introduced in Week 2.

To prepare for this Discussion:
Review Chapter 7, “Measurement,” and Appendix C in the course text Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
What is an example of data that can be transformed from one level of measurement to another, and another example of data that cannot be transformed?
Why is validity for measurement so difficult to establish?
How are the concepts of validity for design and for measurement similar and different?
What is the relationship between reliability and validity?

With these thoughts in mind:

Post by Day 3 a 3-paragraph response:
1 paragraph in which you differentiate between the levels of measurement by providing an example of data that can be transformed from one level of measurement to another and another example of data that cannot be transformed. Include an explanation for why some data can be transformed and some cannot.
2 paragraphs comparing the concept of validity for design to the concept of validity for measurement.

When appropriate, be sure to support your postings and responses with specific references to the reading(s) and/or video program(s) and use APA format.

Read a selection of your colleagues’ postings.
Respond by Day 5 to at least two of your colleagues’ postings in one or more of the following ways:
Ask a probing question.
Share an insight from having read your colleague’s posting.
Offer and support an opinion.
Validate an idea with your own experience.
Make a suggestion.
Expand on your colleague’s posting.
Return to this Discussion in a few days to read the responses to your initial posting. Note what you have learned and/or any insights you have gained as a result of the comments your colleagues made.
•    Instructions – Application
Begin: Measurement and Instruments for a Quantitative Research Plan
This assignment covers the content in Week 4 and Week 5 on measurement instruments. Week 4 content and related assignment questions are listed below. Preparatory content and related assignment questions for Week 5 content are included in the Week 5 Application area.
To prepare for this Application:
Review Chapter 2, “Conceptual Foundations of Research” (pp. 24–32) and Chapter 7, “Measurement” in the course text Research Methods in the Social Sciences.
Review Chapter 3, “Concepts” in the course text from RSCH 8100, A Primer in Theory Construction.
Consider the research plan you are developing for the Final Project.
What levels of measurement will be important for your study? Why?
How will you ensure content validity, empirical validity, and construct validity for your study? If any of these types of validity do not apply to your plan, provide a rationale.
How will you ensure reliability for the measurement in your study?
What are the strengths and limitations of the measurement instrument you have selected in terms of reliability and validity?
The assignment:

Craft a 5- to 7-page paper that includes the following:

The levels of measurement that will be important for your study and why.
How you will ensure content validity, empirical validity, and construct validity for your study. If any of these types of validity do not apply to your plan, provide a rationale.
How you will ensure reliability for the measurement in your study.
The strengths and limitations of the measurement instrument you have selected in terms of reliability and validity.
Provide at least 10 references to the literature to support your choices and rationales.
Please proceed to the SPSS Practice.
•    Instructions – SPSS Practice
In Weeks 7–11, you will be responsible for analyzing data using SPSS in some of your assignments. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you complete the SPSS exercises below and participate in the Statistics & SPSS Discussion below Week 12 to gain the maximum benefit.
Practice Materials:
Review the assigned readings in the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data, focusing on Lessons 16 A/B, 17 A/B, and 18 A/B.
Download the sample data files for Lessons 15 (Mac) or 16 (PC) of the course text Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and Understanding Data from http://www.pearsonhighered.com/salkind/#sam.
Practice Exercise:
Complete the activities for the assigned SPSS lessons.
Optional but strongly encouraged: Visit the Statistics & SPSS Discussion area located under the Statistics button below Week

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