Social determinants of health are factors affecting peoples’ health, functioning and well-being,

Social determinants of health are factors affecting peoples’ health, functioning and well-being, such as environmental conditions, social, and economic variables. Socioeconomic environmental factors contributing to infectious disease occurrence include crowding, unsanitary, unavailability of uncontaminated foods and water. These conditions provide an environment required for continuous chain of infection; the process required for transmission of disease. There are 6 components in the chain, or a cycle, of infection: organisms, reservoir, portal of exit, transmission, portal of entry, and a suspectable host (Green, 2018). To stop spreading of a communicable disease, the process has to interrupted or the chain of infection has to be broken at any point. Nurses, working in communities can decrease of the infectious diseases spreading. Promoting vaccination to lowering susceptible hosts number; and educating on sign and symptoms for early self-isolation to protect one’s family members from getting sick, breaking the transmission link. Educating on thorough hand hygiene and reducing face touching may protect one from getting sick eliminate portal of entry link. Proper respiratory hygiene, such as using disposable tissues and covering the mouth when sneezing, may stop the transmission on the stage of the pathogen leaving the reservoir via portal of exit (CDC.gov).

Noncommunicable chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, have grown in endemic and epidemic proportions, are developing from a combination of determinants including environmental, physiological, and behavioral factors, additionally to genetic disposition (Green, 2018). Lack of knowledge and motivation, unavailability of healthcare services and financial resources contribute to developing of such diseases.q

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