The Physiology of Fitness

The Physiology of Fitness

1 Know the body’s response to acute exercise

Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fibre micro tears

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities

Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation

Respiratory: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume

2 Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood

volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat;

increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate

Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

3 Be able to investigate the physiological effects of exercise on the body systems

Types of exercise: eg aerobic, resistance, circuit, interval

Methods of investigation: comparison of pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological readings, eg resting heart rate, exercise heart rate, percent heart rate

maximum, percent heart rate reserve maximum, Rating of Perceived Exertion, blood pressure, flexibility tests, spirometry

Review: effects of exercise on the body systems (acute and long-term); pre-exercise, exercise and post-exercise physiological data; practicality of exercise activities

selected; advantages and disadvantages; strengths and areas for improvement
Grading criteria
To achieve a pass grade the evidence must
show that the learner is able to:
To achieve a merit grade the evidence must
show that, in addition to the pass criteria,
the learner is able to:
To achieve a distinction grade the evidence
must show that, in addition to the pass and
merit criteria, the learner is able to:
P1  describe the musculoskeletal
and energy systems response
to acute exercise
M1 explain the response
of the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems to acute exercise
P2  describe the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems responses
to acute exercise
P3   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal system and
energy systems    M2 explain the long-term
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems
P4   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems
P5   collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy
systems, with tutor support    M3  collect physiological
data to investigate the
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems, with
limited tutor support    D1   independently investigate
the physiological
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems
P6   review physiological data
collected, describing the
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal, cardiovascular,
respiratory and energy systems.    M4  review physiological data
collected, explaining
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.    D2  review physiological
data collected, analysing
the effects of exercise
on the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular, respiratory
and energy systems.

Unit 2
Teaching Resource
Task 1
1 Know the body’s response to acute exercise

Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fibre micro tears

Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities

Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation

Respiratory: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 1
P1  describe the musculoskeletal
and energy systems response
to acute exercise
M1 explain the response
of the musculoskeletal,
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems to acute exercise
P2  describe the cardiovascular and
respiratory systems responses
to acute exercise

Assessment Assignment 2.1
Date set
Submission Date
Overview
Scenario
You are on work placement at a local gym. Your supervisor has asked you to put together a personal training plan for a client. However, before you do this she would

like you to carry out a series of investigations to ensure that you fully understand the different body systems involved, how they work together during exercise and

why they should be taken into account during fitness training and sports participation.

Activity 1
Understanding the initial responses of the body to exercise is important in a range of professions, for example, cardiologists, fitness consultants and personal

trainers. To be able to work effectively in the sport and exercise industry you need to have a good understanding of how the body reacts to exercise. This will enable

you to plan the intensity level of exercise or training for the people that you work with.

Your supervisor has asked you to investigate the initial responses of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to exercise. In the investigation you will first need

to record the resting heart rate, breathing rate and blood pressure of your participants, using the table below. These three readings should also be monitored during

the exercises you have devised. The results taken during exercise can then be compared to the initial resting levels you have recorded and a report written explaining

what the results mean.

The body’s responses to acute exercise are as follows.

• Musculoskeletal response: increased blood supply; increase in muscle pliability; increased range of movement; muscle fi bre micro tears.

• Energy systems: phosphocreatine; lactic acid; aerobic; energy continuum; energy requirements of different sport and exercise activities.

• Cardiovascular response: heart rate anticipatory response; activity response; increased blood pressure; vasoconstriction; vasodilation.

• Respiratory response: increase in breathing rate (neural and chemical control); increased tidal volume.

After you have collated the data using the table below Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise (P2).

Phase of session
Resting pulse rate    Breathing rate    Blood pressure
Pre – exercise

Warm – up completion
5 – 10 minutes

10 – 15 minutes

15 – 20 minutes

20 – 25 minutes

25 – 30 minutes

Activity 2

Your supervisor would now like you to Describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems responses to acute exercise (P1).

Activity 3

Explain the response of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to acute exercise (M1).

Hint

P1

For P1, learners need to describe the responses of the musculoskeletal and energy systems to a single bout of exercise. They will need to include how muscle responds

to exercise including the increased blood supply and also the effects of resistance exercises which includes micro tears. Each of the energy systems should be

described and their contribution to exercise as the exercise bout continues over a period of around 30 minutes.

P2

For P2, learners need to describe how the cardiovascular and respiratory systems respond to a single bout of exercise. This should also include the pre-exercise

effects which occur in the heart. Learners should explore the effects over an exercise period of around 30 minutes so that steady state has been attained.

M1

For M1, learners need to explain the responses of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to a single bout of exercise. They will need to include

how muscle responds to exercise including the increased blood supply and also the effects of resistance exercises which includes micro tears. Cardiovascular and

respiratory responses should be explained; learners should give reasons and provide the physiological evidence to clearly support their explanation.

Grading Criteria

This assignment will assess P1, P2 and M1.

P1

Describe the musculoskeletal and energy systems responses to acute exercise

P2

Describe the cardiovascular and respiratory systems responses to acute exercise

M1

Explain the response of the musculoskeletal, cardiovascular and respiratory systems to acute exercise

Useful Resources

Barker R et al — BTEC National Sport: Sports Development and Fitness Options
(Heinemann, 2004)

Dalgleish J et al — The Health & Fitness Handbook (Longman, 2001)

Heyward V — Advanced Fitness Assessment and Exercise Prescription (Human
Kinetics, 2006)

Honeybourne J — BTEC National Sport (Nelson Thornes, 2004)

Lawrence M — The Complete Guide to Core Stability (A and C Black, 2003)

Sharkey B and Gaskill E — Fitness and Health (Human Kinetics, 2006)

British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences www.bases.org.uk

Human Kinetics www.humankinetics.com

Top End Sports www.topendsports.com
Task 2
2 Know the long-term effects of exercise on the body systems

Cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy; increase in stroke volume; increase in cardiac output, decrease in resting heart rate; capillarisation; increase in blood

volume; reduction in resting blood pressure; decreased recovery time; increased aerobic fitness

Muscular system: hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increased storage of glycogen and fat;

increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid

Skeletal system: increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid

Respiratory system: increased vital capacity; increase in minute ventilation; increased strength of respiratory muscles; increase in oxygen diffusion rate

Energy systems: increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source

Grading Criteria for assessment of Task 2
P3   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
musculoskeletal system and
energy systems
P4   describe the long-term
effects of exercise on the
cardiovascular and respiratory
systems
M2 explain the long-term
effects of exercise on
the musculoskeletal,
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